Amikacin Liposome Inhalation Suspension: A Review in Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease
Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension (ALIS; Arikayce®) [formerly known as liposomal amikacin for inhalation, or LAI] is a liposomal formulation of the aminoglycoside antibacterial drug amikacin. The ALIS formulation, administered via inhalation following nebulization, is designed to facilitate targeted and localized drug delivery to the lungs while minimizing systemic exposure. Based on the prespecified primary endpoint analysis of the ongoing phase III CONVERT trial, ALIS has been approved in the USA for use as part of a combination antibacterial drug regimen against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease that is treatment refractory (i.e. an active infection present despite ≥ 6 consecutive months of a multidrug regimen) in adult patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. In the CONVERT trial, once-daily ALIS as an add-on to guidelines-based therapy (GBT) significantly increased the odds of achieving sputum culture conversion by month 6 compared with GBT alone in patients with treatment-refractory MAC lung disease. The addition of ALIS to GBT was associated with an increased risk of respiratory adverse events compared with GBT alone; however, serious adverse events were experienced by a similar proportion of patients in the two treatment groups. In conclusion, although current evidence for efficacy is limited to microbiological outcomes (with clinical benefit yet to be established), available data suggest that ALIS is a useful option for the treatment of patients with MAC lung disease who have not responded to conventional therapy and for whom there are limited or no alternative treatment options available.